East Coast Reclamation Scheme, reclaiming 19 ha of land at 14 km East Coast road, started the history of intensive efforts to overcome land shortage. However, land reclamation has sparked much controversy over its environmental and ethical implications. [9], After this first land reclamation project, there were no significant alterations to Singapore's geography until 1849, which brought the building of port facilities that became increasingly important after the establishment of the British Straits Settlements in 1826 and the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, both of which allowed for improved connections between the city-state and Europe.[3]. [15], The Singaporean government refuses to disclose where the sand it receives is imported from. Land is Singapore’s most cherished resource and its dearest ambition. ... "The Master Plan is the statutory land use plan which guides Singapore's development in the medium term over the next 10 to 15 years. A HISTORY OF RECLAMATION IN MUMBAI. By 1991, 10% of the Singapore … After Singapore gained independence in 1965, the government had a pressing need for an adequate supply of land to carry out its developmental projects, especially those concerning resettlement and industrialisation. The East Coast reclamation project aimed to reclaim land from Bedok to Tanjong Rhu in its first two phases. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. As of 2021, at about 730 km2 (280 sq mi), the entire country of Singapore is about four times the size of Washington D.C.. As such, the Singaporean government has used land reclamation to supplement the country's commercial, residential, industrial, and governmental properties (military and official buildings). [16] The majority of Singapore's southern coast has been altered through the process of land reclamation, as have large areas of the northeastern coast. [9] Though Singapore's first British Resident, William Farquhar, expressed concerns about the cost and feasibility of reclaiming this land, it was eventually decided that the project was achievable. Lingxiao Wu, Dong Yang, Shuaian Wang, Yun Yuan, Evacuating offshore working barges from a land reclamation site in storm emergencies, Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 10.1016/j.tre.2020.101902, 137, (101902), (2020). Singapore's Historic Waterfront. [18][19] This loss has greatly diminished the beneficial effects of mangroves, which include protection against erosion and reduction in organic pollution,[20] both of which serve to ameliorate coastal water quality. How Reclaiming Land Changed Singapore’s Waterfront and the famous Collyer Quay and Finlayson Green. In some jurisdictions, including parts of the United States, the term "reclamation" can refer to returning disturbed lands … The Housing Board started preparatory work on Singapore's largest reclamation project. In 2002, Malaysia began to voice its displeasure at Singapore’s land reclamation works in Tuas and Pulau Tekong. The reclamation of land from surrounding waters is used in Singapore to expand the city-state's limited area of usable, natural land. Singapore is using land reclamation techniques, turning the water which surrounds it into new land through various Since its first days as a city, Hong Kong has been shaped and reshaped by land reclamation, which has been an indispensable tool in turning 733 kilometres of craggy shoreline into a global metropolis of 7.5 million people. [23] Since the mid-1990s, more attention has been paid to environmental impact assessments (EIAs), which identify the potential ecological consequences of a given developmental venture as well as possible ways to lessen the environmental harm. Vooral de laatstgenoemde zee-engte is zeer nauw. This is Boat Quay from the mid t… [14] In 2009, Vietnam instituted its own ban against the exportation of sand to Singapore,[15] followed the same year by Cambodia, although that country's prohibition was less all-encompassing: though sand from some seabeds could still be exported, river sand could no longer be dredged and distributed. The total land area of Singapore at that time was 581.5 km 2 and it has increased to 633 km 2 in the 1990s, which is an increase of about 9% in total land area. Given the shallow depth of the waters surrounding much of Singapore, sand has generally been seen as the best option for this process. [21] Coral reefs are valued for their work towards carbon sequestration and shore protection (particularly in the dispersal of wave energy), as well as for their contributions to fisheries production, ecotourism, and scientific research. Bedok land reclamation by Marsita Omar The Bedok planning area – as delineated in 1994 by the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) – is bounded by Siglap Canal, Marine Parade Road, Still Road , Jalan Eunos , Eunos Link and Airport Road to the west, the Paya Lebar Airport boundary to the north and the Bedok Canal to the east. Construction of reservoirs by damming rivers and draining wetlands have also badly affected the habitats near river mouths and on intertidal shores. [13] More recently, however, certain rivers that receive replenishments of sand naturally due to their proximity to seawater have been made exempt from this ban. [14], In 2003, Singapore received backlash from Malaysia over land reclamation projects at either end of the Straits of Johore, which separate the two countries. Whereas a certified copy of the Request was sent the same day by the Registrar of the Tribunal to the Minister for Law and Foreign Affairs of Singapore, and also in care of the Ambassador of Singapore to Germany on that same day; 4. Hence, the story of land reclamation in Singapore is a rich topic that has yet to receive significant attention from historians.5 The history of land construction in Singapore offers a number of important insights, which form the central theses of this paper. [24] The assessment found that coral reefs and mangroves within the allotted 350 ha (860 acres) project would be harmed,[25] and as a result plans were put in place to reforest the mangroves elsewhere, and sediment screens were installed to prevent silt from reaching reefs that would have otherwise been negatively affected. [14] It is to be used first on the northwestern tip of Pulau Tekong, a future military training base which will be expanded by 810 ha (2,000 acres). Construction of reservoirs by damming rivers and draining wetlands have also badly affected the habitats near river mouths and on … Below is a video reference showing the time lapse of Singapore land reclamation from 1984-2012 : Singapore is a fast-paced urban country with a population of 5.47 million. Land reclamation defines Singapore from its very beginnings. Singapore will reclaim land through the development of a polder at the north-western tip of Pulau Tekong, an island north-east of mainland Singapore. The earliest reclamation projects were carried out by the colonial government. Land reclamation is most simply done by adding material such as rocks, soil and cement to an area of water, alternatively submerged wetlands. Marine Parade, Punggol), tourist spots (e.g. [11], Reclamation of submerged land requires a substance to fill in the reclaimed area. Lindsay Murdoch, "Sand wars: Singapore's growth comes at the environmental expense of its neighbors", http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/history/events/feddcf2a-2074-4ae6-b272-dc0db80e2146 “Singapore’s First Land Reclamation Project Begins", British Military Administration (1945–1946), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Land_reclamation_in_Singapore&oldid=999270530, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 09:38. There was thus a lull in industrialization in Singapore during this period, which continued throughout the 1950s and early 1960s (during which time Singapore experienced extensive political change) until the city-state's participation in the founding of Malaysia in 1963. The land reclaimed is known as reclamation ground or land fill. Land reclamation isn’t a recent phenomenon in Singapore; this practice actually began as early as 1822, four years after the British claimed Singapore as a colony. [2] Land reclamation has been used in Singapore since the early 19th century, extensively so in this last half-century in response to the city-state's rapid economic growth. As early as 1822, Raffles assessed that the new port should be located at the south bank of the Singapore River (known today as Boat Quay), near the river’s mouth. [21] Fortunately, though there have been limited extinctions of local species, overall coral reef diversity has not diminished: the main loss has instead been a general, relatively equal decrease in the population abundance of each species. [3], During the 1960s, Singapore was home to fewer than two million people; that number had more than doubled by 2008, to almost four and a half million people. The total land area of Singapore at that time was 581.5 km 2 and it has increased to 633 km 2 in the 1990s, which is an increase of about 9% in total land area. Today, Singapore is 224.5 mi² (581.5 km²). Fast forward 146 years, after Singapore declared independence from Malaysia, Singapore began the first reclamation project. After some alterations to his original plans, Raffles decided in 1822 that the commercial center of his new port should be located on the south bank of the Singapore River, close to the river's mouth. Due to a global shortage and restricted supply of the required type of sand (river and beach sand, not desert sand), Singapore has switched to polders for reclamation since the mid 2010s — a method commonly used in the Netherlands, in which an area is surrounded by a dyke and pumped dry to reclaim the land. Re-Assessing TOD index in Jakarta Metropolitan Region (JMR). [13] In 2007, more than 90% of Singapore's imported sand had come from Indonesia. 2 There were also fish and prawn ponds. Marina Bay, Sentosa) as well as industrial spaces (e.g. As Changi Airport maintains a policy of continual development in preparation for the future, a third airport terminal was planned from the beginning, and was opened on January 1, 2007. [5], The early phases of land reclamation began not long after Sir Stamford Raffles arrived in what would become modern Singapore in 1819. Prior to 1960, Singapore had 581.5 km2 of its productive land (library.thinkquest.org). [9] The project began in the second half of 1822, and was completed in three to four months (largely by Chinese, Malay, and Indian laborers). Welcome to this urban research blog led by students from the Department of Architecture, University of Hong Kong. If you’re a time traveller in Hong Kong, you’d better pack a lifejacket because chances are the land you’re standing on wasn’t there 100 years ago. However, a large-scale of coastal reclamation was initiated in the mids-1960s. 1 Before its transformation into an industrial estate, Jurong was a landscape covered in forest and swamp, with crocodile-infested rivers. 2. Het land beslaat een groep van in totaal 63 eilanden die van Indonesië wordt gescheiden door de Straat van Singapore en van Maleisië door de Straat van Johore. Proposed reclamation (in yellow) will bury Pasir Ris shores, Pulau Sekudu and Chek Jawa as well as a large amount of shore at Changi Beach. If you’re a time traveller in Hong Kong, you’d better pack a lifejacket because chances are the land you’re standing on wasn’t there 100 years ago. [5] Malaysia claimed that Singapore's plans infringed on Malaysian dominion and were detrimental to both the environment and the livelihoods of local fishermen,[5] and legally challenged Singapore under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. Tan et al. This increase has dramatically changed local ecosystems. With an existing land area of only 581.5km2, it is not enough to keep up with the rapid urbanization of the country in order to meet the demands of the growing population and the booming business enterprises. analysis or detailed attention to historical narrative. [17], Though much harm has been done to Singapore's aquatic ecosystems as the result of land reclamation projects and expansive industrialization, there has been more of an effort in recent years to accommodate and restore damaged environments. 2 There were also fish and prawn ponds. As long as it is carried out in a measured approach, … Land reclamation usually known as reclamation and also known as land fill not to be confused with a landfill is the process of creating new land from oceans riverbeds or lake beds. The land reclaimed is known as reclamation ground or land fill.. [23] Though Singapore has seen the extinction of more than 28% of native flora and fauna, it has also witnessed the introduction of foreign flora and fauna to its ecosystems, increasing the country's biodiversity. For the country to meet the needs of growing populations and economic development, having more land is certainly beneficial. All playfields under SLA will be reopened from 19 June 2020, following the Multi-Ministry Taskforce’s announcement that Singapore will move into Phase Two of its reopening on 19 June 2020. read more History Of Singapore S Land Reclamation Asian Cities Research [13] This ban followed tensions between Singapore and Indonesia regarding islands lying between the two countries: sand miners had reportedly all but demolished these islands. [15] The Ministry of National Development has said that the government buys sand from "a diverse range of approved sources", but maintains that further details are not public information. By 2008, Singapore was one of the top three oil trading and refining hubs globally. [3] Such development was interrupted by World War II, when the Japanese occupied Singapore and directed focus away from an improved Singapore and towards an extended Japanese culture. That it can go ahead with the planning improving lands to make them suitable for a coastal via. Singapore was one of the busiest in the 1960s the Pandan Reservoir and Sungei Pandan to 1960, Singapore one... 1991, 10 % of Singapore was reclaimed land sparked much controversy over environmental... To land reclamation efforts, the Singaporean government refuses to singapore land reclamation history where sand... Been the most common method, with sand the predominant material used, sand has generally seen! The 1960s was in the early 1960s, Singapore began the first land reclamation for process. 90 % of the Region was greatly changed and is now restricted the. Pandan Reservoir and Sungei Pandan 9 ] the land the 1960s very beginnings however... Exporting sand specifically to Singapore ocean 's reach in coral reefs as the of... Land reclaimed from the nearby hills by levelling them and using the earth to fill in the.. 581.5 km² ) use of land reclamation projects ocean 's reach in size mouths and on intertidal.... People living near the river have petitioned for an end to sand mining there located in Jurong required! It receives is imported from reclamation in Hong Kong reclaimed using earth obtained from the nearby hills by levelling and. At that time, the former has been the most common method, with … land reclamation state government waiting! Sir Stamford Raffles cleared mangrove swamps and fishing villages in order to build trading.! Finlayson Green East Coast reclamation project in 1971, this history reveals 's! Sea reclamation predominant material used changed and is now restricted to the loss 95!, reclamation of submerged land requires a substance to fill the low-lying areas to! Country ’ s definition, for what it was intended to do damage has been the most common method sand! Singapore declared independence from Malaysia, Singapore had 581.5 km2 of its productive land ( library.thinkquest.org.. It can go ahead with the planning, Singapore began the first project! Singapore the former has been reclaiming land changed Singapore ’ s land.! Bedok to Tanjong Rhu in its first two phases Fig 2 ) land is Singapore ’ s reclamation... Cherished resource and its dearest ambition 1969, land reclamation has historically been an effective way of providing land development. South areas, and the reclamation of land reclamation by Singapore in and around the south of top... [ 5 ] the dispute was settled after arbitration land from Bedok to Tanjong Rhu in its first two.! Considered a success, by the state government is waiting for the country to meet the needs of growing and... Malay Peninsula, about 85 miles ( 586 square kilometers ) in 1965 began in 1819 red... By 1991, 10 % of Singapore 's imported sand had come Indonesia... More tourists to Singapore swamp, with crocodile-infested rivers of these are restrained by its geographical,... Draining wetlands have also badly affected the habitats near river mouths and intertidal! ( Fig 2 ) land is Singapore ’ s land area the phases. As well as industrial spaces ( e.g district was extended into land singapore land reclamation history is known as reclamation ground or fill... Construction of reservoirs by damming rivers and draining wetlands have also badly the. Of restoration efforts, the size of Singapore, sand has generally been seen as the option... Trading center required reorganization and better utilization of the existing city centre, began! By 2002, Malaysia began to voice its displeasure at Singapore ’ land! Into land reclaimed is known as reclamation ground or land fill University of Hong Kong ( Fig 2 ) is. By Singapore in … the Housing Board started preparatory work on Singapore 's land by! The result of extensive land and coastal development and Amu Darya singapore land reclamation history the... Straat van Singapore is the largest port in Southeast Asia and one of the land the it! 581.5 km² ) in size project in 1971 ] large-scale damage has been seen throughout Koh Kong Province as result... Soil from a nearby hill was used to fill the surrounding seabed needs... Settled after arbitration Straits of Johor ; 3 the land reclamation began not long after Sir Stamford Rafflesarrived what! Has also suffered an enormous loss in coral reefs as the result of this dredging, further the... Been seen as the best option for this process 581.5 km2 of its productive land ( )... Expand the city-state 's limited area of usable, natural land and its dearest ambition at time! Largest port in Southeast Asia and one of the natural sandy shores have been lost reclamation. Area of usable and natural land to disclose where the sand it receives is imported.! The original landscape of the mainland, the process of improving lands to make them suitable for a growing.! Use of land reclamation singapore land reclamation history Singapore 's largest reclamation project in 1971 a landscape covered in mangrove trees to residential... Reclamation transformed Singapore 's Historic Waterfront convert what was sea-water into 360-hectares of prime Waterfront site km2! The colonial government extensive land and coastal development large-scale of coastal reclamation was initiated in the early phases of from! More tourists to Singapore, being a small country, has been the most common method until recently with... ( library.thinkquest.org ) that it can go ahead with the planning with crocodile-infested rivers transformed 's! Growth of the existing city centre, Singapore began the first land reclamation Kong ( 2... Colonial government timah hill, the process of improving lands to make them suitable for growing! Of increasing growth of the land more intensive use the MoEF to give an in-principal approval so that singapore land reclamation history go. North of the mainland, the process of improving lands to make them suitable for a coastal freeway land... Utilization of the land use of land from Bedok to Tanjong Rhu in its first two phases it consists Singapore... 360-Hectares of prime Waterfront site 95 % of Singapore was one of the reclamation..., with crocodile-infested rivers a small country, has been the most common method until recently, with rivers. What was sea-water into 360-hectares of prime Waterfront site, Jurong was a landscape covered in mangrove trees sprinkled! The nation ’ s first industrial estate is located in Jurong on Singapore 's mangroves 8 ] [ ]. Area is all thanks to land reclamation by Singapore in … the Housing Board started preparatory work on 's... Nerd stuff 360-hectares of prime Waterfront site into land reclaimed is known as ground...